Viola palmata

Family:VIOLACEAE
Species:Viola palmata L.
Common Name:EARLY BLUE VIOLET
Plant Notes:Glabrate plants are common in Florida, which have been referred to as V. septemloba. The names V. esculenta, V. edulis, and V. hirsutula, have also been differently applied in Florida for plants with mostly unlobed or few-lobed leaves. A further difficulty is that the earliest leaves produced (the oldest ones) are unlobed on most plants.
Status:Native, FACW (DEP), FACU (NWPL)
Specimen: View details of USF Herbarium specimens

** Not applicable or data not available.

Classification

Division
Class
Sub Class
Order MALPIGHIALES
FamilyVIOLACEAE
Genus Viola
Species Viola palmata L. - EARLY BLUE VIOLET

Citation

Citation VIOLA PALMATA Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 933. 1753.
Basionym: **
Type: VIRGINIA: Without data (lectotype: LINN 1052.1). Lectotypified by L. E. McKinney, Sida Misc. 7: 12. 1992.

** Not applicable or data not available.

Source

CountyHerbariaLiterature Citation (If Applicable)
Alachua USF  
Baker FLAS  
Calhoun USF  
Charlotte FLAS  
Citrus USF  
Clay USF  
Columbia FLAS  
DeSoto USF  
Duval USF  
Escambia USF  
Flagler USF  
Franklin FSU  
Gadsden FSU  
Gilchrist FLAS  
Hamilton USF  
Hardee FLAS  
Hernando USF  
Highlands USF  
Hillsborough USF  
Holmes FSU  
Jackson USF  
Jefferson USF  
Lake USF  
Lee USF  
Leon USF  
Levy USF  
Liberty USF  
Madison USF  
Manatee USF  
Marion USF  
Nassau USF  
Okaloosa USF  
Okeechobee USF  
Orange USF  
Osceola DWP  
Palm Beach GH  
Pasco USF  
Pinellas USF  
Polk USF  
Putnam USF  
Santa Rosa USF  
Sarasota USF  
Seminole USF  
St. Johns USF  
Sumter USF  
Suwannee FLAS  
Taylor FSU  
Union USF  
Volusia USF  
Wakulla USF  
Walton USF  
Washington FLAS  

Synonyms

– Denotes synonyms that are applicable to the state. Show these synonyms only

SynonymFull CitationBasionymType
Viola affinis var. chalcosperma Viola affinis LeConte, var. chalcosperma (Brainerd) Griscom, Rhodora 38: 49. 1936.BASIONYM: Viola chalcosperma Brainerd 1910. 
Viola chalcosperma Viola chalcosperma Brainerd, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 523. 1910. TYPE: FLORIDA: Duval Co.: Near Jacksonville, 21 Mar, 9 Apr 1909, Brainerd 25 (holotype: NY; isotypes: K, PH).
Viola congener Viola congener LeConte, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 140. 1828, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Viola triloba Schweinitz 1822. 
Viola cucullata var. palmata Viola cucullata Aiton, var. palmata (Linnaeus) A. Gray, Manual, ed. 2. 43. 1856.BASIONYM: Viola palmata Linnaeus 1753. 
Viola edulis Viola edulis Spach, Hist. Nat. Vég. 5: 508. 1836.BASIONYM: Viola heterophylla Muhlenberg ex LeConte 1828, non Poiret 1808, nec Bertoloni 1810; Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Elliott 1817. 
Viola esculenta Viola esculenta Elliott ex Greene, Pittonia 3: 314. 1898, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Viola edulis Spach 1836; Viola heterophylla Muhlenberg ex Leconte 1828, non Poiret 1808, nec Bertoloni 1810; Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Elliott 1817. 
Viola heterophylla Viola heterophylla Muhlenberg ex Leconte, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 139. 1828, non Poiret 1808, nec Bertoloni 1810.BASIONYM: Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Elliott 1817. 
Viola insignis Viola insignis Pollard, Bot. Gaz. 26: 344. 1898, non K. Richter 1886. TYPE: FLORIDA: Duval Co.:
Viola palmata subsp. triloba Viola palmata Linnaeus, subsp. triloba (Schweinitz) W. Stone, Pl. S. New Jersey 566. 1912 ("1911").BASIONYM: Viola triloba Schweinitz 1822. 
Viola palmata var. dilatata Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. dilatata Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 300. 1817. TYPE: "Georgia and Carolina",
Viola palmata var. esculenta Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. esculenta Elliott ex D. B. Ward, Phytologia 88: 244. 2006, nom. illegit.BASIONYM: Viola esculenta Elliott ex Greene 1898, nom. illegit.; Viola edulis Spach 1836; Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Elliott 1817. 
Viola palmata var. heterophylla Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. heterophylla Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 300. 1817. TYPE: GEORGIA: River swamps, Ogeechee (River), Apr, Elliott(?) s.n. (holotype: CHARL).
Viola palmata var. triloba Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. triloba (Schweinitz) Gingins de la Sarraz, in de Candolle, Prodr. 1: 292. 1824.BASIONYM: Viola triloba Schweinitz 1822. 
Viola palmata var. vulgaris Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. vulgaris Elliott, Sketch Bot. S. Carolina 1: 300. 1817, nom. inadmiss.BASIONYM: Viola palmata Linnaeus 1753. 
Viola septemloba Viola septemloba LeConte, Ann. Lyceum Nat. Hist. New York 2: 141. 1828.  
Viola triloba Viola triloba Schweinitz, Amer. J. Sci. Arts 5: 57. 1822. TYPE: NORTH CAROLINA: Forsyth Co.: Salem, s.d., Schweinitz s.n. (holotype: PH).
Viola triloba forma dilatata Viola triloba Schweinitz, forma dilatata (Elliott) E. J. Palmer & Steyermark, Brittonia 10: 115. 1958.BASIONYM: Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. dilatata Elliott 1817. 
Viola triloba var. dilatata Viola triloba Schweinitz, var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 587. 1910.BASIONYM: Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. dilatata Elliott 1817. 
Viola vicinalis Viola vicinalis Greene, Pittonia 4: 4. 1899.BASIONYM: Viola insignis Pollard 1898, non K. Richter 1886. 
Viola angellae Viola angellae Pollard, Torreya 2: 24. 1902. TYPE: NEW JERSEY: Essex Co.: Orange, May 1900, Angell s.n. (holotype: US).
Viola atlantica Viola atlantica Britton, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 92. 1897, non Pomel 1874. TYPE: NEW YORK: Staten Island along Salt Meadows, 8 Jun 1888, Britton s.n. (lectotype: NY). Lectotypified by L. E. McKinney, Sida Misc. 7: 22. 1992.
Viola baxteri Viola baxteri House, New York State Mus. Bull. 254: 500. 1924. TYPE: NEW YORK: Ontario Co.: Fishers, 2 Jun 1916, House s.n. (holotype: US; isotype: NY).
Viola brittoniana Viola brittoniana Pollard, Bot. Gaz. 23: 332. 1898.BASIONYM: Viola atlantica Britton 1898, non Pomel 1874. 
Viola digitata Viola digitata Pursh, Fl. Amer. Sept. 171. 1814. TYPE: VIRGINIA:
Viola eamesii Viola eamesii House, New York State Mus. Bull. 254: 507. 1924, pro hybr. TYPE: CONNECTICUT:
Viola emarginata var. subsinuata Viola emarginata (Nuttall) LeConte, var. subsinuata Greene, Pittonia 3: 313. 1898. TYPE: TENNESSEE: Cocke Co.: Within 3 mi. Of Wolf Creek Station, 11 Sep 1897, Kearney 615 (holotype: NDG).
Viola falcata Viola falcata Greene, Pittonia 4: 3. 1899. TYPE: ILLINOIS: Union Co.: Near Cobden,
Viola lovelliana Viola lovelliana Brainerd, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 37: 526. 1910. TYPE: LOUISIANA: Acadia Par.: Crowley, 25 Mar 1910, Brainerd 77 (lectotype: NY; isotype: PH). Lectotypified by L. E. McKinney, Sida Misc. 7: 13. 1992.
Viola palmata var. angellae Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. angellae (Pollard) W. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Hist. Philadelphia 55: 678. 1903.BASIONYM: Viola angellae Pollard 1902. 
Viola palmata var. variabilis Viola palmata Linnaeus, var. variabilis (Greene) W. Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Hist. Philadelphia 55: 677. 1903.BASIONYM: Viola variabilis Greene 1902. 
Viola pectinata Viola pectinata E. P. Bicknell, Torreya 4: 129. 1904. TYPE: NEW YORK: Nassau Co.: Woodmere, 21 May 1904, Bicknell s.n. (holotype: NY).
Viola pedatifida subsp. brittoniana Viola pedatifida G. Don, subsp. brittoniana (Pollard) L. E. McKinney, Sida Misc. 7: 22. 1992.BASIONYM: Viola brittoniana Pollard 1898; Viola atlantica Britton 1898, non Pomel 1874. 
Viola pedatifida var. brittoniana Viola pedatifida G. Don, var. brittoniana (Pollard) R. J. Little & L. E. McKinney, J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 4: 225. 2010.BASIONYM: Viola brittoniana Pollard 1898; Viola atlantica Britton 1898, non Pomel 1874. 
Viola stoneana Viola stoneana House, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 253, pl. 16. 1905. TYPE: PENNSYLVANIA: Chester Co.: Near Kennett Square, 7 May 1903, Stone 5113 (holotype: US).
Viola subsinuata Viola subsinuata (Greene) Greene, Pittonia 4: 4. 1899.BASIONYM: Viola emarginata (Nuttall) Leconte, var. subsinuata Greene 1898. 
Viola variabilis Viola variabilis Greene, Pittonia 5: 90. 1902. TYPE: MARYLAND: Ca. half way up Maryland Heights, near Harpers Ferry, 14 May 1898, Greene s.n. (holotype: NDG?).
Viola viarum Viola viarum Pollard, in Britton, Man. Fl. N. States 635. 1901. TYPE: MISSOURI: St. Louis Co.: St. Louis, Valley Park, 15 Jul 1899, Norton s.n. (holotype: NY?; isotype: PH).
Viola viarum forma pilifera Viola viarum Pollard, forma pilifera E. J. Palemer & Steyermark, Brittonia 10: 116. 1958. TYPE: MISSOURI: Gentry Co.: N and E side of Grand River, 1.5-2 mi. S of McFall, T61N, R30W, Sec. 13, 28 Apr 1955, Steyermark 78500 (holotype: F).

Specimens

Country State County Date Specimen Notes Image
USA Florida Hernando Co. 25 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5783
USA Florida Santa Rosa Co. 07 Mar 1957 R. K. Godfrey 55406
USA Florida Lake Co. 16 Feb 1964 O. K. Lakela 26833
USA Florida Polk Co. 12 Mar 1961 O. K. Lakela 23849
USA Florida Pasco Co. 03 Mar 1961 G. M. Riegler s.n.
USA Florida Clay Co. 20 Mar 1993 S. L. Orzell 21276
USA Florida Lee Co. 12 Mar 2006 J. M. Kunzer 1408
USA Florida Duval Co. 22 Mar 1993 S. L. Orzell 21292
USA Florida Sumter Co. 12 Apr 2006 E. Jensen DB0107
USA Florida Sumter Co. 02 Mar 1992 S. L. Orzell 19113
USA Florida Manatee Co. 18 Feb 1995 R. Owens LM0141
USA Florida Alachua Co. 04 Mar 2000 C. Slaughter 11435
USA Florida Calhoun Co. 08 Mar 2007 T. MacClendon 557
USA Florida Citrus Co. 28 Feb 1972 P. Genelle 1128
USA Florida Marion Co. 20 Apr 1963 D. B. Ward 3453
USA Florida Manatee Co. 21 Dec 1961 O. K. Lakela 24886
USA Florida Alachua Co. 29 Mar 1954 G. R. Cooley 2582
USA Florida Liberty Co. 16 Mar 1983 F. H. Utech 83-022
USA Florida Citrus Co. 23 Mar 1983 M. E. Schmid A-156
USA Florida Orange Co. 16 Dec 1998 R. Mejeur 717
USA Florida Nassau Co. 18 Mar 2015 W. D. Longbottom 22157
USA Florida Levy Co. 22 Mar 2009 S. Dickman 104
USA Florida Hernando Co. 07 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5560
USA Florida Hernando Co. 02 Apr 1958 G. R. Cooley 5878
USA Florida Madison Co. 17 Mar 1958 R. Kral 6292
USA Florida Pasco Co. 11 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5595
USA Florida Pasco Co. 20 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5903
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 20 Feb 1976 A.G. Shuey 1593
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 01 Mar 1964 O. K. Lakela 26863
USA Florida Nassau Co. 10 May 1964 D. B. Ward 4015
USA Florida Liberty Co. 01 Mar 1961 R. K. Godfrey 60556
USA Florida Jackson Co. 16 Mar 1963 D. B. Ward 3349
USA Florida Jackson Co. 16 Mar 1963 D. B. Ward 3350
USA Florida Pinellas Co. 16 Jan 1971 P. Genelle 421
USA Florida Liberty Co. 15 Feb 1982 D. S. Correll 53289
USA Florida Clay Co. 27 Mar 1982 R. P. Sauleda 7116
USA Florida Clay Co. 28 Mar 1982 D. S. Correll 53409
USA Florida Escambia Co. 15 Mar 1981 G. Wilhelm 8545
USA Florida Volusia Co. Feb 1993 W. F. Grey s.n.
USA Florida Highlands Co. 18 Feb 1994 A. Becker HH0038
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 31 Jan 1967 O. K. Lakela 30616
USA Florida Leon Co. 12 Mar 1976 L. C. Anderson 4119
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 13 Apr 1979 S. DuBois 79-2-21
USA Florida Sarasota Co. 25 Mar 1994 S. Cole OS0174
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 24 Mar 1962 J. A. Lassiter s.n.
USA Florida Hernando Co. 19 Apr 1959 G. R. Cooley 6458
USA Florida Hernando Co. 07 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5560
USA Florida Duval Co. 22 Mar 1993 S. L. Orzell 21302
USA Florida Union Co. 11 Mar 1978 Joan Campbell 16
USA Florida DeSoto Co. 14 Feb 1977 A.G. Shuey 1869
USA Florida Okaloosa Co. 15 Mar 1982 G. Wilhelm 9938
USA Florida Citrus Co. 25 Feb 1983 M. E. Schmid A-130
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 08 Mar 1963 O. K. Lakela 25680
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 05 Feb 1961 O. K. Lakela 23746
USA Florida Seminole Co. 03 May 1960 G. R. Cooley 7639
USA Florida Seminole Co. 03 May 1960 G. R. Cooley 7617
USA Florida Seminole Co. 02 May 1960 G. R. Cooley 7398
USA Florida Orange Co. 26 Feb 1975 R. Demmer s.n.
USA Florida Putnam Co. 24 Mar 1979 B. F. Hansen 5216
USA Florida Polk Co. 03 Apr 2008 J. M. Kunzer 2351
USA Florida Lake Co. 14 Apr 2012 A. R. Franck 2989
USA Florida Nassau Co. 10 Mar 2008 C. Slaughter 16214
USA Florida Liberty Co. 20 Mar 1992 S. L. Orzell 19207
USA Florida Flagler Co. 25 Feb 2005 J. M. Kunzer 943
USA Florida Pasco Co. 20 Mar 2004 E. M. Ferguson 647
USA Florida Wakulla Co. 20 Mar 1959 R. K. Godfrey 58266
USA Florida Okeechobee Co. 29 Oct 1998 E. L. Bridges 25417
USA Florida Alachua Co. 06 Mar 1952 G. R. Cooley 813
USA Florida Marion Co. 29 Mar 1958 R. Kral 6357
USA Florida Marion Co. 31 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5845
USA Florida Hamilton Co. 17 Mar 1958 R. Kral 6295
USA Florida Pinellas Co. 27 Mar 1958 G. R. Cooley 5893
USA Florida Jefferson Co. 22 Mar 1958 R. Kral 6314
USA Florida Polk Co. 25 Feb 1956 C. Bennett s.n.
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 12 Feb 2002 A. C. Schmidt 174
USA Florida St. Johns Co. 02 Mar 1918 B. H. Patterson 6210
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 19 Feb 1963 O. K. Lakela 25661
USA Florida 14 Mar 1982 G. Wilhelm 9932
USA Florida Lake Co. 24 Mar 1978 R. Daubenmire s.n.
USA Florida Okaloosa Co. 16 Mar 1983 G. Wilhelm 11096
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 11 Feb 1964 V. Ducey 19
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 22 Apr 1962 J. A. Lassiter s.n.
USA Florida Hillsborough Co. 08 Feb 1979 S. DuBois 79-2-29
USA Florida Orange Co. 01 Mar 1975 J. E. Poppleton s.n.
USA Florida Polk Co. 12 Mar 1961 O. K. Lakela 23838
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